8200 Evidence of earliest
settlement found in excavations at
Çukuriçi Höyük, a tumulus in the
southeast of Ephesus
5000-3000 Prehistoric settlement discovered in
excavations on Hill of Ayasuluk_
1400 Mycenaean findings located
in Ephesus area.
1345-1315 Region is devastated in
war between Hittite king, Mursili 111
and King Uhhaziti of Arzawa and
1000 According to legend,
Androclus, son of King Codrus of Athens, founds Ephesus at foot of Mt Pion.
645 Cimmehans invade region under command
600s Elegiac poet, Callinus, lives in Ephesus_
560 Lydian king, Croesus, begins building Arcriaic
Temple of Artemis during his rule over Ephesus
546 Median general, Harpagus, captures
550-500 Ephesus comes under Persian
466 Ephesus joins Dalian League, or First Athenian Alliance
431-404 Ephesus sides with Spartans and Persians to
fight against Athens in Peloponnesian War,
356 Temple of Artemis is (according to legend)
burned down by Herostratus, a lunatic.
334 Alexander the Great enters Ephesus and
offers to finance -Temple of Artemis; Ephesians
politely decline, claiming it
inappropriate for one god to
build a temple to another
319-281 Sovereign powers
in Ephesus change hands
during Wars of the Diadochi;
city is rebuilt by Lysimachus and named Arsinoea
281 Death of Lysimachus heralds beginning of
260 Ephesus captured by Philadelphus, second
king of Ptolemaic dynasty
195-190 Hannibal flees to court of Antiochus in
191 City is besieged by Romans following naval
defeat of Polyxenidas, governor of Ephesus
188 Under Peace of Aparriea, Ephesus becomes
part of Kingdom of Pergamon
133 King Arta!us Ill of Pergamon bequeaths
kingdom to Roman Republic; Province of Asia is
100 Greek geographer, Artemidorus, lives in
88 Ephesus sides with Mithridates of Pontus; all
Romans in the city are slaughtered.
86 City is penalized by Roman commander,
Lucius Cornelius SuIla.
73 L. Licinius Luculi us becomes governor of
44 Two of Caesar’s assassins, M. Junius Brutus
and G. Cassius Longinus, flee to Ephesus.
41 Mark Antony comes to Ephesus with
Cleopatra; Cleopatra’s sister, Arsinoe IV, is killed
after taking refuge in the Artemision (Temple of Artemis).
31 Ephesus becomes base for Mark. Antony prior
to dispute with Octavian.
29 Province of Asia is reorganized by Octavian;
Ephesus takes over from Pergamon as capital
of Asia and city is furnished with impressive
monuments. Strabo, the geographer, calls at
23 Ephesus is rebuilt with emperor’s backing after
being destroyed in earthquake.
53-55 Paul the Apostle journeys to Ephesus
and establishes city as centre of Christianity.
Demetrius, a silversmith, incites the people
against Paul. St Luke, writer of the gospel, comes
62 Customs Law of Asia is brought into effect.
82 Temple of Dornitian is built.
100 Death of St John. author of the fourth gospel
and the Book of Revelation; his body is buried on
Hilt of Aysulukb.
113-114 Roman emperor, Trajan. visits Ephesus.
c. 135-136 Roman emperor. Antoninus Pius, is
appointed proconsul of Asia in Ephesus.
140-144 Emperor Antoninus Pius cautions
Ephesians over their fondness for rank and title.
150 Urbanization of Ephesus reaches peak
162-163 Roman emperor, Lucius Verus, comes
262 Ephesus is struck by severe earthquake,
following which Temple of Artemis is plundered by
Goths, minting of coins ceases.
c. 391 Temple buildings are plundered and
destroyed after Roman Empire declares
Christianity its official religion_
431 Third Ecumenical Council convenes in
Ephesus Virgin Mary is
Mother of God.
530 Cave of Seven
Sleepers is endorsed by
Theodosius as sacred site
and place of pilgrimage.
550 Eastern Roman
Justinian t, builds domed
church on site of St
John’s grave on Hill of
Ayasuluk, building begins
on Ayasuluk city walls.
c. 610 Ephesus becomes
capital of a military region
known as Thrakesion.
654-655 Arab armies attack under leadership of
Muawiyah and bishop’s seat is moved to Church
of St John
1304 City is taken over by Aydintd Turks (of the
Aydinoglu dynasty) and absorbed into the Beylik,
or Principality of Selcuk.
1375 Isa Bey Mosque is built.
1390 Ottoman sultan, Bayezit 1, defeats Aydinids.
1403 Central Asian warlord, Tamerlane, defeats
Ottomans short-lived return to Seljuk rule.
1426 Region is re-incorporated into Ottoman
1863 J Turtle Wood begins excavating
1896 Excavations are continued by Austrian
Institute of Archaeology.
1914 City’s name is changed from Ayasuluk to