8200 Evidence of earliest

settlement found in excavations at

Çukuriçi Höyük, a tumulus in the

southeast of Ephesus


5000-3000 Prehistoric settlement discovered in

excavations on Hill of Ayasuluk_

1400 Mycenaean findings located

in Ephesus area.


1345-1315 Region is devastated in

war between Hittite king, Mursili 111

and King Uhhaziti of Arzawa and



1000 According to legend,

Androclus, son of King Codrus of Athens, founds Ephesus at foot of Mt Pion.


645 Cimmehans invade region under command

of Lygdamis.


600s Elegiac poet, Callinus, lives in Ephesus_


560 Lydian king, Croesus, begins building Arcriaic

Temple of Artemis during his rule over Ephesus


546 Median general, Harpagus, captures



550-500 Ephesus comes under Persian



466 Ephesus joins Dalian League, or First Athenian Alliance


431-404 Ephesus sides with Spartans and Persians to

fight against Athens in Peloponnesian War,


356 Temple of Artemis is (according to legend)

burned down by Herostratus, a lunatic.


334 Alexander the Great enters Ephesus and

offers to finance -Temple of Artemis; Ephesians

politely decline, claiming it

inappropriate for one god to

build a temple to another


319-281 Sovereign powers

in Ephesus change hands

during Wars of the Diadochi;

city is rebuilt by Lysimachus and named Arsinoea


281 Death of Lysimachus heralds beginning of

Seleucid period_


260 Ephesus captured by Philadelphus, second

king of Ptolemaic dynasty


195-190 Hannibal flees to court of Antiochus in


191 City is besieged by Romans following naval

defeat of Polyxenidas, governor of Ephesus

under Antiochus.


188 Under Peace of Aparriea, Ephesus becomes

part of Kingdom of Pergamon


133 King Arta!us Ill of Pergamon bequeaths

kingdom to Roman Republic; Province of Asia is



100 Greek geographer, Artemidorus, lives in



88 Ephesus sides with Mithridates of Pontus; all

Romans in the city are slaughtered.

86 City is penalized by Roman commander,

Lucius Cornelius SuIla.

73 L. Licinius Luculi us becomes governor of


44 Two of Caesar’s assassins, M. Junius Brutus

and G. Cassius Longinus, flee to Ephesus.


41 Mark Antony comes to Ephesus with

Cleopatra; Cleopatra’s sister, Arsinoe IV, is killed

after taking refuge in the Artemision (Temple of Artemis).

31 Ephesus becomes base for Mark. Antony prior

to dispute with Octavian.

29 Province of Asia is reorganized by Octavian;

Ephesus takes over from Pergamon as capital

of Asia and city is furnished with impressive

monuments. Strabo, the geographer, calls at



23 Ephesus is rebuilt with emperor’s backing after

being destroyed in earthquake.


53-55 Paul the Apostle journeys to Ephesus

and establishes city as centre of Christianity.

Demetrius, a silversmith, incites the people

against Paul. St Luke, writer of the gospel, comes

to Ephesus.


62 Customs Law of Asia is brought into effect.


82 Temple of Dornitian is built.


100 Death of St John. author of the fourth gospel

and the Book of Revelation; his body is buried on

Hilt of Aysulukb.


113-114 Roman emperor, Trajan. visits Ephesus.


c. 135-136 Roman emperor. Antoninus Pius, is

appointed proconsul of Asia in Ephesus.


140-144 Emperor Antoninus Pius cautions

Ephesians over their fondness for rank and title.


150 Urbanization of Ephesus reaches peak



162-163 Roman emperor, Lucius Verus, comes

to Ephesus.


262 Ephesus is struck by severe earthquake,

following which Temple of Artemis is plundered by

Goths, minting of coins ceases.


c. 391 Temple buildings are plundered and

destroyed after Roman Empire declares

Christianity its official religion_


 431 Third Ecumenical Council convenes in

Ephesus Virgin Mary is

proclaimed Theotokos,

Mother of God.


530 Cave of Seven

Sleepers is endorsed by

Theodosius as sacred site

and place of pilgrimage.


550 Eastern Roman

Byzantine) emperor,

Justinian t, builds domed

church on site of St

John’s grave on Hill of

Ayasuluk, building begins

on Ayasuluk city walls.


c. 610 Ephesus becomes

capital of a military region

known as Thrakesion.


654-655 Arab armies attack under leadership of

Muawiyah and bishop’s seat is moved to Church

of St John


1304 City is taken over by Aydintd Turks (of the

Aydinoglu dynasty) and absorbed into the Beylik,

or Principality of Selcuk.


1375 Isa Bey Mosque is built.


1390 Ottoman sultan, Bayezit 1, defeats Aydinids.


1403 Central Asian warlord, Tamerlane, defeats

Ottomans short-lived return to Seljuk rule.


1426 Region is re-incorporated into Ottoman



1863 J Turtle Wood begins excavating



1896 Excavations are continued by Austrian

Institute of Archaeology.


1914 City’s name is changed from Ayasuluk to


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